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- Deleuze and World Cinemas: David Martin-Jones: Continuum!
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Deleuze and World Cinemas: Transworld Cinema/Transworld Deleuze
Both philosophical concepts and aesthetic-non-philosophical images express a diversity of thought. Deleuze did not claim there was a clear autonomy between disciplines. Philosophy needs this non-philosophical field.
In the particular field of philosophical studies on image and the imagination, such as those by Jean-Paul Sartre or Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Deleuze , p. This theory tended to ontologically understate the role of images understood as superficial copies regarding the things they are images of. In his work The Creative Evolution , Bergson highlighted, on the negative criticism he made of the cinematograph, the inertia of the film audience toward the images seen on the screen , p.
This idea was widely generalized and was at the origin of the famous analogy made between the movie theatre and the Allegory of the Cave. The common analogy between the Cave and the cinematic phenomenological experience has only contributed to the increasing devaluation and general depreciation, by aesthetics and the philosophy of art, of the cinematographic art as a valuable and independent philosophical field of studies Jarvie, , p.
Plato created the visual metaphorical idea of a cave where prisoners, unable to move and forced to look just at the shadows that appear in front of them, consider those shadows as reality itself, unaware of their true nature. In order to access the true nature of their situation, to see outside that confined space, they would need to free themselves, abandon the cave and confront reality for what it is. With that empowered knowledge, they would abandon their previous beliefs previously taken in a dogmatic and uncritical way and question the information transmitted by their senses.
The Platonic question was not centred on an aversion towards all images per se -as he himself used images in a pedagogical manner, as mental experiments-rather, it was focused on the etymologic origin of ideas or forms at the eidos -images as intelligible models. Hence, a revision of the Platonic theory of Ideas is concomitant with the revision of a modern visual cultural theory of images. Indeed, this film is directly related to the Platonic theory of Ideas with its distinction between original, copy, and simulacrum, though it does so by reverting its original structure.
Therefore, the shadows of shadows correspond to the material life of the projected photograms and not to real objects. In his aim to overcome Platonism, after Difference and Repetition and Logic of Sense , Deleuze gradually moves away from the concept of simulacrum to rhizome even if he still uses it in Francis Bacon. The Deleuzian simulacrum is not the representational link between an original model and a copy.
Rather, it is the rhizomatic and intensive series of copies that are divergent from a possible original model. In the Deleuzian ontology of the dialectical game between real and actual, the simulacrum opposes itself not to reality but to the copy. For Deleuze, copy and simulacrum are not equivalent , p. We are looking for a way out of the cave, if possible by paradoxically defending a Platonic perspective on the Greek paideia and its present version.
Just as images and allegories were used by philosophers to educate and to express their conceptual work, moving images can be understood as a modern pedagogical tool for new ways to perceive and to feel, new ways to think Viegas, Just as the Platonic allegory is guided by the Greek ideal of a paideia , despite its misleading element, we may say that there will be a pedagogical use of moving images.
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The idea of paideia , more than the allegory per se , is fundamental to the study of cinema as a public, free and anonymous education. Philosophy of film today is far from the Greek ideal of paideia , at least in its Deleuzian analysis-as a non-knowledge without the negative element that is normally associated with it Deleuze, , p. However, if moving images force us to review the optical illusion and the cerebral cortex connection between what the technical mechanism and what the automatism are, in Deleuze, a philosophy of film will be seen as a conceptual practice and not only as a case study for the aesthetic field.
This means that Deleuze understands film as a new experience, as a possible field in which to create new percepts and affects, the elements that constitute his logic of sensation. Although Deleuze does not conceptualize the role of the spectator, he defines the creation of a subjectivity that is particular to the cinematic experience with moving images, which does not reduce itself to a psychological analysis as the question of the gaze, voyeurism, identification, empathy, This thinking does not have to be human any more. The new ways of feeling and thinking will be reflected in a new sensibility towards reality itself, expanding consciousness beyond its natural limits.
Temporal relations are never seen in ordinary perception, but they can be seen in the image, provided the image is creative. The image renders visible, and creative, the temporal relations which cannot be reduced to the present. Deleuze, , p. The affects and percepts belong at their inception to a temporal subjectivity that is not time but is in time.
Sensations give thoughts a body. How can we grasp this pre-individual and pre-representational state? If cinema is the art of repetition the continuous, infinite mechanical reproduction of movies , then how can we escape this closed scheme and look for the difference that differs in cinema? Where does difference lie in the classification of all the cinematographic signs?
According to Deleuze, in becoming: at the temporality between moving images. The cinematographic mechanism is closer to the human mind through the processes of connecting the particular elements of each, i. In this case we then have thinking-images. Although we do not want to overvalue the time-image over the movement-image Martin-Jones, , p.
Deleuze and world cinemas | University of Stirling
First, films allowed him to think about, among other questions, the deterritorialization of the Cartesian cogito and the dogmatic image of thought from that philosophical tradition. Through cinema, Deleuze considered other ways of seeing and feeling, but he considered philosophical thinking from a different perspective, on a philosophical path that goes from film to philosophy, and vice-versa.
We need to go forward in this analogy between the camera and the human mind within a pre-individual ontological model. Foremost, Deleuze also discards the traditional relationship between a subject and an object. Thus, the primordial relationship in the philosophical field, according the Deleuzian terminology, occurs between the brain and chaos. This interval is purely temporal. Nevertheless, to Deleuze, the core of cinema, or its differential mark, is to create a shock in thought by the communication of vibrations, directly reaching our nervous and cerebral system.