Teacher attitudes to inclusion: qualitative and quantitative exploration of how inclusion and disability is constructed by pre- and in-service teachers. Study has a comparative dimension. Inclusive education, disability and media: Representations of disability and inclusive education in newspapers. Inclusive education in a time of crisis: Examination of public debates on inclusive education.
Themes Research on teaching and learning ; Social structures, inequalities and social justice ; Social work and social policy Back to Top. Selected grants. Selected publications Inclusive Education: International Policy and Practice Sage Publications, Development and Disabilities; intellectual, sensory and motor impairment Metaixmio, Education and Blindness; current trends and perspectives Ellinika Grammata, Books Armstrong, A. Inclusive Education: International Policy and Practice.
Zoniou-Sideri, A. Educational Material; ideas for teachers working with blind pupils. Edited Books Zoniou-Sideri, A. Development and Disabilities; intellectual, sensory and motor impairment.
Greece: Metaixmio. Education and Blindness; current trends and perspectives. Greece: Ellinika Grammata. Book Chapters Spandagou, I.
A long journey: Disability and inclusive education in international law. Trimmer, R.
Dixon and Y. Findlay Eds. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. Inklusive padagogik als Herausforderung fur policy und praxis - Internationale und vergleichende Aspekte [Inclusive education as a challenge for policy and practice - International and comparative aspects]. Biewer, E. Schutz Eds. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer GmbH. Spandagou, I. Adapting the curriculum in the school years. Cologon Eds. Melbourne, Vic: Oxford University Press. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. The following sections describes how IE has been practice through these two programs.
The program has been running under a number of series since The first program focused on the gross enrollment rate in primary education. However, the second program incorporated a specific component on inclusive education to address diversity in the regular school system. The framework included four specific target groups; Gender, children with SEN, children from ethnic background and children from vulnerable group e.
Action plans for this framework was consisted of number of activities from language support for ethnic children, modifying school environment for students with SEN to stipend program for students from economically vulnerable families. Second PEDP also made massive training program for the teacher, Head teachers and local education administrators on inclusive education. However, the goals of full inclusion is far to achieve. This declaration was the first government initiative to provisionally ensure the admission of students with SEN in regular school.
The figure clearly shows that the number of enrolled SEN children have been nearly doubled within a five-year duration. Figure 2: Trend in enrolment of children with SEN at primary level The baseline survey conducted in revealed that 45, children with SEN were accommodated in primary schools and among them a significant number students were with intellectual disabilities PEDP Completion Report, However, the exact number of school aged children with SEN has not been identified any report.
Figure 2 shows an increased trend in SEN children enrollment though; the proportion of enrollment could not be computed to see the gap due to the absence of children with SEN population.
Challenging Inclusive Education Policy and Practice in Africa
According to DPE the number of teachers who have participated in this training is 6, The pre-service teacher training curriculum has been revised and included inclusive education issues Hossain, As you can see I have large numbers too, so it is not an easy thing to cater to individual differences or disabilities.
Banu, , p. In addition to this, inclusive education consultants were recruited in each of the districts to provide expert services at the field. Das study shows that the most of the training manuals were not effective for preparing teachers to teacher students with SEN in the regular classroom. School support. For the purpose of providing basic education to children in remote areas, a good number of new infrastructures have been developed under the second PEDP.
It is also mentionable that some additional facilities e. However, in the annual sector performance report shows that the infrastructural development has not been achieved as it was targeted DPE, In addition to infrastructure, the role of SMC has been consistently suggested as a major support for implementing inclusive education at the school. Therefore, it implies that the sensitization program through SMC training is inadequate. One of the challenges of the program was to bring the children with ethnicity in the classroom.
In a study conducted in the northern part of Bangladesh, Sarker and Davey also found that language was one of the aspects inhibited a large percentage of children with ethnicity to participate in the primary education. It was formally launched in and closed in The project was developed on the ground that the secondary education sector in Bangladesh is facing some major problems that are either directly or indirectly related to exclusions.
In its inception document ADB has identified a substantial number of problems that are embedded within the structural and process features of secondary education sector in Bangladesh. Intervention area of TQI-SEP Considering the basic goal of achieving improved classroom instructions, the project concentrated on four key areas. As part of the broader goal of achieving quality secondary education in Bangladesh, the project adopted substantial measures for the implementation of inclusive education.
The project had recognized that the secondary teachers would require inclusive teaching practice skills for supporting effective learning of all children. Thus, in addition to professional learning opportunities the project plan included a range of supportive activities to enhance the implementation of IE at real classroom setting. Improving physical facilities to remove the barrier to physical movement , modifying teacher education curriculum, introducing continuous professional development CPD was enhanced under one component of the project; while strengthening classroom teachers with the provisions for inclusive practice was another significant strand included in the subject based professional development activities.
Under the project a number of reform activities were undertaken to enhance IE in the secondary education sector. In order to support these activities the project prepared and supplied necessary equipment and materials. To achieve this goal, all eligible teachers of grades were involved in professional development program and activities.
These teachers were drawn from both government and private secondary schools in Bangladesh ADB, In order to prepare teachers for inclusive practice, the project picked three districts of the country. In the project documents these districts are termed as outreach districts DSHE, and were considered as vulnerable to basic resources and facilities e.
The target was to select on an average 33 secondary schools and teachers from each district. In total, in-service secondary teachers were supposed to be received a professional development program to equip themselves with knowledge and skills required for inclusive practice. It seems that the reports concentrate more on providing descriptions of input and process than on change achieved.
By and large the project has prepared and disseminated various policy papers on gender and inclusive education, involved teachers in professional development activities, head teachers and SMC members in awareness raising activities, teacher educators in Master trainer programs ADB, ADB has described some information regarding gender and inclusive education situation. According to this report, SSC examinations of showed an increase in pass rates from The pass rate further increased to Teacher professional learning opportunities.
By May , 14, students had successfully completed the pre-service one-year Bachelor of Education Program in Government teacher training colleges; 14, practicing teachers have taken the initial basic module of a 3-month secondary teaching certificate STC ; , teachers have taken the first continuous professional development CPD of a series of three CPD programs to use participatory teaching approaches in the classroom, instead of rote learning. From the three outreach districts classroom teachers had received professional development on inclusive practices. It is also reported that newly appointed head teachers have received their initial 35 days administrative training CIDA, Community awareness.
In a monthly progress report in January , it was reported that a total number of SMC members received awareness training on IE. As a result of this program, these teachers are expected to be able to deal with issues of gender, special educational needs and education for ethnic populations. Beyond input and process: Change in practice Change in classroom practice was one of the foremost targets of the TQISE project as legacy of the policies described earlier.
In a recent study, Khan argues that secondary teachers have different interpretations about the concepts of inclusive education. In their understanding IE is fairly vague and broader rather than focused and specific. These teachers have attended the CPD offered by the project.
Inclusive education in Malaysia: Policy and practice — The National University of Malaysia
The field data from another ongoing study shows that the secondary teachers felt that not only duration of professional development but also the delivery mode of IE topics by the trainers needed to be clearer. An analysis indicates that professional development activities designed by the TQI-SEP were more aligned with conventional off-site approach. Classroom observation of teacher practice implies that there have been some changes in the instructional behaviours in relation to inclusive practice.