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Though insights on communication of CCS projects to the general public and inhabitants of the area around the CO 2 storage sites have been documented over the years, project stakeholders are not consistently implementing these lessons, although some projects have observed good practices Ashworth et al. CCS in the power sector is hardly being realized at scale, mainly because the incremental costs of capture, and the development of transport and storage infrastructures are not sufficiently compensated by market or government incentives IEA, c EOR is a technique that uses CO 2 to mobilize more oil out of depleting oil fields, leading to additional CO 2 emissions by combusting the additionally recovered oil Cooney et al.
This section assesses the feasibility of mitigation and adaptation options related to land use and ecosystems. Land transitions are grouped around agriculture and food, ecosystems and forests, and coastal systems. Some high-latitude regions may benefit from the combined effects of elevated CO 2 and temperature because their average temperatures are below optimal temperature for crops. In both cases there are consequences for food production and quality Cross-Chapter Box 6 in Chapter 3 on Food Security , conservation agriculture, irrigation, food wastage, bioenergy and the use of novel technologies.
Food production and quality. Increased temperatures, including 1. There is medium agreement that elevated CO 2 concentrations can change food composition, with implications for nutritional security Taub et al. These production losses could be lowered if adaptation measures are taken Challinor et al. Adaptation options can help ensure access to sufficient, quality food. Such options include conservation agriculture, improved livestock management, increasing irrigation efficiency, agroforestry and management of food loss and waste. Complementary adaptation and mitigation options, for example, the use of climate services Section 4.
Conservation agriculture CA is a soil management approach that reduces the disruption of soil structure and biotic processes by minimising tillage. A recent meta-analysis showed that no-till practices work well in water-limited agroecosystems when implemented jointly with residue retention and crop rotation, but when used independently, may decrease yields in other situations Pittelkow et al. Additional climate adaptations include adjusting planting times and crop varietal selection and improving irrigation efficiency.
CA can also help build adaptive capacity medium evidence, medium agreement H.
CA practices can also raise soil carbon and therefore remove CO 2 from the atmosphere Aguilera et al. However, CA adoption can be constrained by inadequate institutional arrangements and funding mechanisms Harvey et al. Sustainable intensification of agriculture consists of agricultural systems with increased production per unit area but with management of the range of potentially adverse impacts on the environment Pretty and Bharucha, Sustainable intensification can increase the efficiency of inputs and enhance health and food security Ramankutty et al.
Livestock management. Livestock are responsible for more GHG emissions than all other food sources. Emissions are caused by feed production, enteric fermentation, animal waste, land-use change and livestock transport and processing. Some estimates indicate that livestock supply chains could account for 7.
Cattle beef, milk are responsible for about two-thirds of that total, largely due to methane emissions resulting from rumen fermentation Gerber et al. Despite ongoing gains in livestock productivity and volumes, the increase of animal products in global diets is restricting overall agricultural efficiency gains because of inefficiencies in the conversion of agricultural primary production e.
There is increasing agreement that overall emissions from food systems could be reduced by targeting the demand for meat and other livestock products, particularly where consumption is higher than suggested by human health guidelines. Adjusting diets to meet nutritional targets could bring large co-benefits, through GHG mitigation and improvements in the overall efficiency of food systems Erb et al.
How the role of dietary shift could change in 1. Adaptation of livestock systems can include a suite of strategies such as using different breeds and their wild relatives to develop a genetic pool resilient to climatic shocks and longer-term temperature shifts Thornton and Herrero, , improving fodder and feed management Bell et al. Most interventions that improve the productivity of livestock systems and enhance adaptation to climate changes would also reduce the emissions intensity of food production, with significant co-benefits for rural livelihoods and the security of food supplies Gerber et al.
Whether such reductions in emission intensity result in lower or higher absolute GHG emissions depends on overall demand for livestock products, indicating the relevance of integrating supply-side with demand-side measures within food security objectives Gerber et al. Transitions in livestock production systems e. Overall, there is high agreement that farm strategies that integrate mixed crop—livestock systems can improve farm productivity and have positive sustainability outcomes Havet et al.
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Shifting towards mixed crop—livestock systems is estimated to reduce agricultural adaptation costs to 0. Evidence from various regions supports this Thornton and Herrero, , although the feasible scale varies between regions and systems, as well as being moderated by overall demand in specific food products. In Australia, some farmers have successfully shifted to crop—livestock systems where, each year, they allocate land and forage resources in response to climate and price trends Bell et al.
However, there can be some unintended negative impacts of such integration, including increased burdens on women, higher requirements of capital, competing uses of crop residues e. Finally, the feasibility of improving livestock efficiency is dependent on socio-cultural context and acceptability: there remain significant issues around widespread adoption of crossbred animals, especially by smallholders Thornton et al. Irrigation efficiency. While increasing irrigation system efficiency is necessary, there is mixed evidence on how to enact efficiency improvements Fader et al.
Physical and technical strategies include building large-scale reservoirs or dams, renovating or deepening irrigation channels, building on-farm rainwater harvesting structures, lining ponds, channels and tanks to reduce losses through percolation and evaporation, and investing in small infrastructure such as sprinkler or drip irrigation sets Varela-Ortega et al. Each strategy has differing costs and benefits relating to unique biophysical, social, and economic contexts. Also, increasing irrigation efficiency may foster higher dependency on irrigation, resulting in a heightened sensitivity to climate that may be maladaptive in the long term Lindoso et al.
Improvements in irrigation efficiency would need to be supplemented with ancillary activities, such as shifting to crops that require less water and improving soil and moisture conservation Fader et al. Currently, the feasibility of improving irrigation efficiency is constrained by issues of replicability across scale and sustainability over time Burney and Naylor, , institutional barriers and inadequate market linkages Pittock et al. Growing evidence suggests that investing in behavioural shifts towards using irrigation technology such as micro-sprinklers or drip irrigation, is an effective and quick adaptation strategy Varela-Ortega et al.
While improving irrigation efficiency is technically feasible R. Fishman et al. The integration of trees and shrubs into crop and livestock systems, when properly managed, can potentially restrict soil erosion, facilitate water infiltration, improve soil physical properties and buffer against extreme events Lasco et al.
There is medium evidence and high agreement on the feasibility of agroforestry practices that enhance productivity, livelihoods and carbon storage Lusiana et al.
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Long-term studies examining the success of agroforestry, however, are rare Coe et al. The extent to which agroforestry practices employed at the farm level could be scaled up globally while satisfying growing food demand is relatively unknown. Agroforestry adoption has been relatively low and uneven Jacobi et al. Managing food loss and waste. The way food is produced, processed and transported strongly influences GHG emissions. Food wastage is a combination of food loss — the decrease in mass and nutritional value of food due to poor infrastructure, logistics, and lack of storage technologies and management — and food waste that derives from inappropriate human consumption that leads to food spoilage associated with inferior quality or overproduction.
Food wastage could lead to an increase in emissions estimated to 1. Decreasing food wastage has high mitigation and adaptation potential and could play an important role in land transitions towards 1.
There is medium agreement that a combination of individual—institutional behaviour Refsgaard and Magnussen, ; Thornton and Herrero, , and improved technologies and management Lin et al. Institutional behaviour depends on investment and policies, which if adequately addressed could enable mitigation and adaptation co-benefits in a relatively short time. Novel technologies. New molecular biology tools have been developed that can lead to fast and precise genome modification De Souza et al. Such genome editing tools may moderately assist in mitigation and adaptation of agriculture in relation to climate changes, elevated CO 2 , drought and flooding DaMatta et al.
These tools could contribute to developing new plant varieties that can adapt to warming of 1. However, biosafety concerns and government regulatory systems can be a major barrier to the use of these tools as this increases the time and cost of turning scientific discoveries into ready applicable technologies Andow and Zwahlen, ; Maghari and Ardekani, The strategy of reducing enteric methane emissions by ruminants through the development of inhibitors or vaccines has already been attempted with some successes, although the potential for application at scale and in different situations remains uncertain.
A vaccine could potentially modify the microbiota of the rumen and be applicable even in extensive grazing systems by reducing the presence of methanogenic micro-organisms Wedlock et al.apcoungessconflast.ga
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Selective breeding for lower-emitting ruminants is becoming rapidly feasible, offering small but cumulative emissions reductions without requiring substantial changes in farm systems Pickering et al. Technological innovation in culturing marine and freshwater micro and macro flora has significant potential to expand food, fuel and fibre resources, and could reduce impacts on land and conventional agriculture Greene et al. Technological innovation could assist in increased agricultural efficiency e.
Technological and associated management improvements may be ways to increase the efficiency of contemporary agriculture to help produce enough food to cope with population increases in a 1. Ecosystem restoration. Biomass stocks in tropical, subtropical, temperate and boreal biomes currently hold , , , Gt CO 2 , respectively. Conservation and restoration can enhance these natural carbon sinks Erb et al.
Recent studies explore options for conservation, restoration and improved land management estimating up to 23 GtCO 2 Griscom et al. Mitigation potentials are dominated by reduced rates of deforestation, reforestation and forest management, and concentrated in tropical regions Houghton, ; Canadell and Schulze, ; Grace et al.
Variation of costs in projects aiming to reduce emissions from deforestation is high when considering opportunity and transaction costs Dang Phan et al. However, the focus on forests raises concerns of cross-biome leakage medium evidence, low agreement Popp et al. Reducing rates of deforestation constrains the land available for agriculture and grazing, with trade-offs between diets, higher yields and food prices Erb et al.
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Forest restoration and conservation are compatible with biodiversity Rey Benayas et al. There is low agreement on whether climate impacts will reverse mitigation benefits of restoration Le Page et al. Emerging regional assessments offer new perspectives for upscaling. While there are indications that land tenure has a positive impact Sunderlin et al. Local benefits, especially for indigenous communities, will only be accrued if land tenure is respected and legally protected, which is not often the case Sunderlin et al.
Although payments for reduced rates of deforestation may benefit the poor, the most vulnerable populations could have limited, uneven access Atela et al. Community-based adaptation CbA.