e-book Termcap & terminfo (3rd Edition)

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Linda was born and raised in New York City. She currently lives in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Her summer hobbies are lazing on her hammock, taking long aimless drives, and attempting to play tennis. Her winter hobbies are reading, cooking, and waiting for summer. John Strang now finds himself "a consumer--rather than a producer of Nutshells. He is married to a pediatrician, Susie, and they have two children, Katie and Alex. John enjoys hiking, bicycling, and dabbling in other sciences. He plans to use his experience as an author at ORA to write his own book on radiology.

He is also the author of a book about science-fiction writer Frank Herbert. Tim's long-term vision for the company is to create a vehicle where creative people can support themselves by exploring interesting ideas. Technical book publishing is just the first step. Tim graduated cum laude from Harvard in with a B. What This Book Contains. Goodheart, B. Fascinating and fun to read - a must-have for ongoing UNIX kernel gurus.

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Includes the source code of a Korn Shell debugger. If the terminal has hardware tabs that are initially set every n spaces when the terminal is powered up, its terminfo description should define the numeric capability it to show the number of spaces the tabs are set to. Normally, the tput init command uses the it parameter to determine whether to set the mode for hardware tab expansion and whether to set the tab stops.

If the terminal has tab stops that can be saved in nonvolatile memory, the terminfo description can assume that they are properly set.

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Other, similar capabilities include the is1 , is2 , and is3 initialization strings for the terminal; the iprog capability that specifies the terminal's initialization program, and the if capability that identifies the name of a file containing long initialization strings. These strings are expected to set the terminal into modes consistent with the rest of the terminfo file description. They are normally sent to the terminal by the tput init command each time the user logs in.

When the user logs in, the system does the following:. You can set up special terminal modes without duplicating strings by putting the common sequences in the is2 capability and special cases in the is1 and is3 capabilities. To specify sequences that do a harder reset from a totally unknown state, specify the rs1 , rs2 , rs3 , and rf capabilities that are the same as is1 , is2 , is3 , and the if capabilities. A few terminals use the if and rf files.

However, the recommended method is to use the initialization and reset strings. These strings are output by the tput reset command. This command is used when the terminal starts behaving strangely or is not responding at all.

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Commands are normally placed in the rs1 , rs2 , rs3 and rf capabilities only if they produce annoying effects on the screen and are not necessary when logging in. For example, the command to set the terminal into column mode would normally be part of is2 , but it causes an annoying screen behavior and is not necessary since most terminals initialize in column mode.

If there are commands to set and clear tab stops, specify them using the tbc clear all tab stops and the hts set a tab stop in the current column of every row capabilities. If a more complex sequence is needed to set the tabs, the place the sequence in the is2 or the if capability. The mgc capability can clear any margin. For more information about how to set and clear margins, see Margins. If the terminal requires a character other than a null character as a pad, then specify the pad string.

Only the first character of the pad string is used. If a terminal does not have a pad character, specify the npc capability. If the terminal can move up or down half a line, define the hu half-line up and hd half-line down capabilities. These capabilities are primarily useful for superscripts and subscripts on hardcopy terminals. If a hardcopy terminal can eject to the next page form feed , specify the as ff usually Ctrl-L capability.


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If there is a command to repeat a given character a given number of times to save time transmitting a large number of identical characters , this can be indicated with the rep parameterized string. The first parameter is the character to be repeated, and the second is the number of times to repeat it. Thus following:. If the terminal has a settable command character, such as the Tektronix , indicate this with the cmdch capability. A prototype command character is chosen that is used in all capabilities. This character is given in the cmdch capability to identify it. On some UNIX systems, if the CC environment variable exists, all occurrences of the prototype character are replaced with the character in the CC variable.

Terminal descriptions that do not represent a specific kind of known terminal such as switch, dialup, patch, and network, should include the gn generic capability. This capability allows programs to return errors if they cannot talk to the terminal. The gn capability does not apply to virtual terminal descriptions for which the escape sequences are known.

If a terminal is supported by the UNIX system virtual terminal protocol, use the vt capability to define its terminal number. You should still include padding information as well so that routines can make better decisions about costs. However, actual pad characters are not transmitted. If a terminal has a meta key that acts as a shift key to set the eighth bit of any character transmitted, identify the key with the km capability.

Otherwise, software assumes that the eighth bit is parity, and it will usually be cleared. If strings exist to turn this meta mode on and off, they can be given as the smm and rmm capabilities. If a terminal has more lines of memory than fit on the screen at once, use the lm capability to define the number of lines of memory. A value of lm 0 indicates that the number of lines is not fixed, but that there are still more lines of memory than fit on the screen. Media copy strings that control an auxiliary printer connected to the terminal are identified with the following capabilities:. If the terminal screen does not display the text when the printer is on, specify the mc5i capability to signify a silent printer.

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All text, including the mc4 , is transparently passed to the printer while an mc5p is in effect.